Steroid hormones exert their effects on their target cells by

Glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatories, regardless of the inflammation's cause; their primary anti-inflammatory mechanism is lipocortin-1 (annexin-1) synthesis. Lipocortin-1 both suppresses phospholipase A2 , thereby blocking eicosanoid production, and inhibits various leukocyte inflammatory events ( epithelial adhesion , emigration , chemotaxis , phagocytosis , respiratory burst , etc.). In other words, glucocorticoids not only suppress immune response, but also inhibit the two main products of inflammation, prostaglandins and leukotrienes . They inhibit prostaglandin synthesis at the level of phospholipase A2 as well as at the level of cyclooxygenase /PGE isomerase (COX-1 and COX-2), [29] the latter effect being much like that of NSAIDs , potentiating the anti-inflammatory effect.

Cells of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis lack aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) that converts corticosterone to aldosterone, and thus these tissues produce only the weak mineralocorticoid corticosterone. However, both these zones do contain the CYP17A1 missing in zona glomerulosa and thus produce the major glucocorticoid, cortisol. Zona fasciculata and zona reticularis cells also contain CYP17A1, whose 17,20-lyase activity is responsible for producing the androgens, dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Thus, fasciculata and reticularis cells can make corticosteroids and the adrenal androgens, but not aldosterone.

Hypercalcemia may develop both spontaneously and as a result of androgen therapy in women with disseminated breast carcinoma.  If it develops while on this agent, the drug should be discontinued. Caution is required in administering these agents to patients with cardiac, renal or hepatic disease.  Cholestatic jaundice is associated with therapeutic use of anabolic and androgenic steroids.  Edema may occur occasionally with or without congestive heart failure.  Concomitant administration of adrenal steroids or ACTH may add to the edema.  In children, anabolic steroid treatment may accelerate bone maturation without producing compensatory gain in linear growth.  This adverse effect may result in compromised adult stature.  The younger the child the greater the risk of compromising final mature height.   The effect on bone maturation should be monitored by assessing bone age of the wrist and hand every six months.  This drug has not been shown to be safe and effective for the enhancement of athletic performance. Because of the potential risk of serious adverse health effects, this drug should not be used for such purpose.

Steroid hormones exert their effects on their target cells by

steroid hormones exert their effects on their target cells by

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