In late medieval Europe, several authors had the ambition of compiling the sum of human knowledge in a certain field or overall, for example Bartholomew of England , Vincent of Beauvais , Radulfus Ardens , Sydrac , Brunetto Latini , Giovanni da Sangiminiano, Pierre Bersuire . Some were women, like Hildegard of Bingen and Herrad of Landsberg . The most successful of those publications were the Speculum maius (Great Mirror) of Vincent of Beauvais and the De proprietatibus rerum (On the Properties of Things) by Bartholomew of England . The latter was translated (or adapted) into French, Provençal, Italian, English, Flemish, Anglo-Norman, Spanish, and German during the Middle Ages. Both were written in the middle of the 13th century. No medieval encyclopedia bore the title Encyclopaedia – they were often called On nature (De natura, De naturis rerum) , Mirror (Speculum maius, Speculum universale) , Treasure (Trésor) .