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Vasopressin hormones are a family of peptides released from the hypothalamus derived from a common pre pro form. We aim to identify longitudinal reference levels in a large cohort of CKD patients to correlate with disease stage. Also, such data from heart failure patients will be assessed. We plan to evaluate e. g. effects of circadian rhythm, comorbidities and respective treatments, demographics and life style on hormone levels. A definition of cut-off levels could help to identify patients at risk for worsening conditions (such as loss of kidney function in CKD) or to predict progression or outcome of treatment.
Within the genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts, commensal flora serve as biological barriers by competing with pathogenic bacteria for food and space and, in some cases, by changing the conditions in their environment, such as pH or available iron.  As a result of the symbiotic relationship between commensals and the immune system , the probability that pathogens will reach sufficient numbers to cause illness is reduced. However, since most antibiotics non-specifically target bacteria and do not affect fungi, oral antibiotics can lead to an "overgrowth" of fungi and cause conditions such as a vaginal candidiasis (a yeast infection).  There is good evidence that re-introduction of probiotic flora, such as pure cultures of the lactobacilli normally found in unpasteurized yogurt , helps restore a healthy balance of microbial populations in intestinal infections in children and encouraging preliminary data in studies on bacterial gastroenteritis , inflammatory bowel diseases , urinary tract infection and post-surgical infections .