The term peptide has been used to mean secretagogue peptides and peptide hormones in sports doping matters: secretagogue peptides are classified as Schedule 2 (S2) prohibited substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List, and are therefore prohibited for use by professional athletes both in and out of competition. Such secretagogue peptides have been on the WADA prohibited substances list since at least 2008. The Australian Crime Commission cited the alleged misuse of secretagogue peptides in Australian sport including growth hormone releasing peptides CJC-1295 , GHRP-6 , and GHSR (gene) hexarelin. There is ongoing controversy on the legality of using secretagogue peptides in sports. 
If OAA is converted to PEP by mitochondrial PEPCK, it is transported to the cytosol where it is a direct substrate for gluconeogenesis and nothing further is required. Transamination of OAA to aspartate allows the aspartate to be transported to the cytosol where the reverse transamination occurs yielding cytosolic OAA. This transamination reaction requires continuous transport of glutamate into, and 2-oxoglutatrate (α-ketoglutarate) out of, the mitochondrion. Therefore, this process is limited by the availability of these other substrates. Either of these latter two reactions will predominate when the substrate for gluconeogenesis is lactate. Whether mitochondrial decarboxylation or transamination occurs is a function of the availability of PEPCK or transamination intermediates.